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Dogs looking for friends

IBAN NL62INGB0004011891 BIC / SWIFT-Code: INGBNL2A ING Bank-Amsterdam. ActieZwerfhonden Zonnemaire The Netherlands

How to solve


1. Introduction. Why spend money on dogs ?
2. Stray dog statistics.
3. Rabies – not one case out of 7000 dogs
4. Solutions – ‘Neuter and Release’
5. Policies which fail: (a) Poisoning (b) Incarceration
6. S.H.K.D.’s work so far
7. Projections for Neuter & Release in a typical municipality with 465000 people and 4000 straydogs
8. The only answer: a Private Enterprise-Public Sector Project
9. Dog Population Management Board
10. Executive Board
11. Alternative Structure
12. Local neutering clinics – at least one per municipality
13. Public Relations and networks of volunteers
14. Peripheral municipalities
15. How much will the project cost ?
16. Commercial sponsorschap
17. Future use of clinics and future dog control
18. Licensing of dog breeders
19. Pitfalls.

1. Introduction.

Street dogs cause road accidents and nuisance, wake residents at night, disturb rubbish, frighten children and give rise to usually unjustified panics about rabies. The sight of hungry, sick dogs foraging desperately for food, or of their dead bodies squashed on Istanbul’s roads, is distressing to visitors and residents alike and tarnishes Istanbul’s image as the commercial capital of Turkey and the Black Sea region. Most of these miserable strays are potentially loyal, affectionate companions, pets and guard dogs. The problem is worse in Istanbul than in some other cities in the world because of the proliferation of rubbish and the mutual fear between dogs and human residents, which makes the dogs difficult to approach and tame. SHKD’s purpose is to solve Istanbul’s stray dog problem effectively and humanely.

This paper deals only with the European side of Istanbul where SHKD is active. The same problems and solutions apply to the Asian side and indeed to all towns and cities in Turkey.

2. Statistics

We have been unable to find figures for the number of street dogs in Istanbul. Numbers in city areas have temporarily been reduced by recent strychnine poisoning campaigns. SHKD has neutered and released over 800 dogs in the year 2000 in Besiktas belediye. Of these approx. one third has disappeared – poisoned or dumped outside Besiktas municipal boundaries. These removed dogs will gradually be replaced by fertile immigrants from surrounding areas; Besiktas belediye and SHKD will now have to spend more money and effort catching, neutering, vaccinating and releasing these new immigrants.
The stray dog population depends solely on the carrying capacity of the area which in turn in a temperate climate with plentiful water depends solely on the food available. The food on which stray dogs survive consists of probably 95% edible rubbish and 5% handouts by animal lovers. The rubbish and handouts are in direct proportion to the human population. Stray dogs cannot survive independently of human beings.

Besiktas has a human population of 202783 according to the 1997 census. Assuming that the carrying capacity of Besiktas is 1000 dogs (the 800 we have released plus 200 poisoned or not yet caught) this extrapolates to a ratio of one stray dog for every 203 human residents.

However Besiktas is a relatively wealthy area with less edible rubbish on the streets than in poorer areas.

Semi-stray dogs, those ‘owned’ by residents but always or sometimes allowed to stray at will, must also be taken into the equation (and of course be neutered and vaccinated). There are relatively few of these in Besiktas but more in poorer areas.

SHKD recently took over the management of Bakirkoy municipality’s shelter and clinic in which there are almost 700 dogs. Two ladies we support look after approx. 400 more dogs in Atakoy. There are probably another 400 stray dogs in Bakirkoy. We can therefore assume that the carrying capacity of Bakirkoy, with a human population of 214417, is about 1500 dogs (a ratio of 1: 143).

In Gokturk village (excl. Kemer Country estate) there is a human population of ca. 3100 people. SHKD has neutered, vaccinated and released 583 dogs in Gokturk and surrounding areas. This is a ratio of 1 dog per 5.3 human beings ! However many of these dogs have been dumped from Istanbul city areas and have infiltrated from Kemerburgaz rubbish dump. Others have been dumped on the new rubbish tip. SHKD is ensuring their ‘artificial’ survival by feeding them in forest areas around Gokturk. Virtually every stray dog in the Gokturk area is known to us.

These are the figures for areas covered intensively by SHKD assuming that we have caught 80% of the potential dog population (100% in Gokturk) :




No. of dogs
Human Population Ratio dogs:people
Akpinar Koy


Total excl. Habibler
439090 1 : 116

According to the 1997 census the human population of the European Istanbul conurbation was 5,778,115 (excl. Catalca, Silivri and Bahcesehir which are separated by several kms of open land). We assume the census understated the human population but that it understated it equally in the areas listed above. If the human population is 7 million on the European side of the city one would expect a population of 60340 stray dogs.

Ratio of stray dogs per 1000 human beings in areas covered by SHKD: 8.62
So if the human population is 5.778 million there are 49807 stray dogs on the European side of Istanbul.
There may be a higher density of dogs in poor areas such as Gaziosmanpasa. It is however probably safe to assume that the carrying capacity of the European side of Istanbul is no more than 100,000 stray dogs (14.28 dogs per 1000 human beings).

The W.H.O. estimated in 1996 that there were 150,000 owned dogs in the city (Asian and European sides), only 31.9 % of which were vaccinated against rabies. There were 6.8 males to every one female dog owned, presumably because uncastrated males are preferred as guard dogs.



Human Population

Probable no. of fertile dogs
1. Avcilar 214621 1850
2. Bagcilar 487896 4205
3. Bahcelievler 442877 3817
4. Bakirkoy 222336 400
5. Bayrampasa 240427 2072
6. Besiktas 202783 50
7. Beyoglu 231826 1998
8. Esenler 344428 2969
9. Eyup 254028 2190
10. Fatih 432590 3728
11. G.Osmanpasa 649648 5595
12. Gungoren 273915 2360
13. Kagithane 317328 2735
14. K.Cekmece 460388 3970
15. Sariyer 229600 1980
16. Sisli 257049 2115
17. Z. Burnu 228786 1972
18. B.Cekmece


Total 5778115


3. Rabies

SHKD has examined, neutered and vaccinated over 7000 dogs in Istanbul in the last two years; we have not had a single case of rabies.
We have known several cases of encephalitis, of which some symptoms are similar to rabies. We therefore suspect that most of the alleged cases of rabies, which cause panic aggravated by the media, are in fact encephalitis or other illnesses. Dogs with encephalitis bite at everything near them and foam at the mouth like rabid dogs.

Nevertheless all neutering clinics should have multipurpose quarantine facilities just in case there is a suspected case of rabies or another infectious or dangerous disease.

4. Solutions

There are only 3 ways to solve stray dog problems. (1) To kill or remove every single fertile bitch. (2) To remove the food source, i.e. remove all rubbish from the streets so that the dogs starve to death. Or (3) ‘Neuter and Release’.

Extermination campaigns, for example the recent indiscriminate strychnine poisoning of dogs at night irrespective of whether they are neutered and vaccinated or indeed pets with owners, have never succeeded in Istanbul.

‘Neuter and Release’, the policy advocated by the World Health Organisation and the World Society for the Protection of Animals, solves the problem permanently, although dogs have to be tolerated on the streets for 3-5 years for it to succeed. Providing it is implemented to the edge of the urban area it is however a permanent and humane solution which politicians can be proud of.

Istanbul needs to invest money and effort now to solve the problem for ever.

Stray dog populations anywhere depend solely on the amount of food available. Nature adjusts the population to the carrying capacity of the territory. If just one fertile female escapes being poisoned she can breed up to 67,000 offspring in 6 years.* That is why poisoning will never succeed unless every single female is exterminated.

If however the carrying capacity of an area is filled with sterile animals the population will gradually die out, providing no fertile dogs can infiltrate from surrounding areas and providing freshly abandoned dogs are collected by dog wardens, police and residents (as in developed countries).

* source: Doris Day Animal League, U.S.A.

5. Policies doomed to fail: Poisoning and Incarceration.

(a) Poisoning.

This is usually done surreptitiously between midnight and 2 a.m. by municipal workers or by private contractors to municipalities who then return to collect dead bodies. We have been told that it is the policy of the Ministry of Agriculture in Ankara. Meatballs are laced with a high dose of strychnine and are thrown out of vans in areas where stray dogs (are believed to) live. No notice is given to local residents of poisoning so dog owners are unable to protect their pets from it. However poisoners usually desist when confronted by members of the public.

The poisoning is indiscriminate and appallingly cruel. Death is slow and agonising. Many pets and neutered dogs have eaten poisoned meatballs. SHKD knows of many deaths of pets in places such as Kemerburgaz, where almost all the stray dogs have in any case been neutered and vaccinated by us. There is even the possibility that an unsupervised infant could eat a poisoned meatball.

Outbreaks of rabies are the pretext for these extermination campaigns, although as far as we know there has never been any proof that the rabies panics are based on anything more than rumour and fear.

Officials and municipal vets are reluctant to admit knowing anything about these extermination campaigns and we have not found any official or politician willing to defend strychnine poisoning.

In the short term poisoning does of course reduce the stray dog population but unless it is carried out intensively and persistently it cannot eradicate stray dogs.

If poisoning worked the stray dog population of Istanbul would have been eliminated centuries ago.

If each fertile bitch has 8 live puppies twice a year 71% of all fertile females must be poisoned twice a year before the population starts to diminish slowly. If as many as 80% of all fertile females could be poisoned every 6 months the stray dog population in a typical municipality would be reduced from 4000 dogs to 1084 dogs after 7 years (again assuming each bitch has 8 live puppies twice a year).

This compares to a stray dog population of only 40 after 7 years if Neuter and Release is implemented.

Whereas ‘neuter and release’ can be carried out 24 hours per day every day of the week openly and with the cooperation of animal lovers, poisoning has to be carried out secretly and occasionally because of the likelihood of protests and disruption. If animal lovers and owners of semi-strays know poisoning is likely they will do their best to protect the dogs they look after.

Poisoning would have to be carried out persistently in every area of every municipality for six years probably once a week, without disruption from ‘animal protectors’, to kill 80% of the dogs every breeding season, and it would still take 7years of consistent poisoning to reduce the dog population to 27.1% of the carrying capacity !


– assuming half of the poisoning is done before dogs give birth and half afterwards
# assuming 12.5% of adult females dies naturally and 40% of balance is poisoned before giving birth in first 6 months, thereafter no natural deaths because almost all survivors will be young
* assuming 50% puppies die of illness before 40% of balance is poisoned

** 100% of carrying capacity

Date Total Surviving Fertile Females# after 40% poisoned Surv. Puppies* Poisoned adults
after 40% poisoned before breeding after breeding
Male Female Male Female Male Female
31.12.01 4000** 1050 1260 1260 700 700 700 700
30.06.02 3220 966 1159 1159 644 644 644 644
31.12.02 2962 889 1066 1066 592 592 592 592
30.06.03 2726 818 982 982 545 545 545 545
31.12.03 2510 753 903 903 502 502 502 502
30.06.04 2308 692 830 830 462 462 462 462
31.12.04 2120 636 763 763 424 424 424 424
30.06.05 1950 585 702 702 390 390 390 390
31.12.05 1794 538 646 646 359 359 359 359
30.06.06 1650 495 594 594 330 330 330 330
31.12.06 1518 455 546 546 304 304 304 304
30.06.07 1394 418 502 502 279 279 279 279
31.12.07 1282 385 461 461 256 256 256 256
30.06.08 1180 354 424 424 236 236 236 236

1084 (27.1% of carrying capacity)

The problem for the poisoners is that the dogs can breed so fast – according to the Doris Day Animal League one female dog and her offspring can produce 67000 puppies in 6 years ! – that all they achieve is a temporary reduction in the dog population. Every surviving bitch breeds. And no dogs are vaccinated against rabies. With ‘neuter and release’ most of the bitches on the streets don’t breed and die natural deaths, although for 4 years the dog population is higher than with 80% poisoning.


(b) ‘Catch and Incarcerate’

This is a summary of the policy adopted recently by authorities in Istanbul but not put into practice except in Bakirkoy (the management of whose shelter and clinic S.H.K.D has recently taken over in order to alleviate the suffering of the incarcerated animals). By removing and imprisoning animals in camps municipalities are simply creating empty feeding territories which nature will soon fill with new fertile dogs. So ‘Catch and Incarcerate’ makes the problem worse, not better (see below).
In Turkey there is little or no hope of rehoming these captured dogs. SHKD has been able to rehome to Turkish homes less than 1% of its dogs and many of those have been ‘adopted’ as guard dogs for factories or prisons, not as domestic pets.
The dog population in Bakirkoy will gradually recover to the carrying capacity of the municipality of about 1500 dogs in addition to the 700 dogs SHKD is looking after in the shelter.

Why does Catch and Incarcerate make the problem worse ?
Because nature ensures that every dog taken off the streets is replaced by a new dog. Live puppies which would have found so little food that they would have died of illness or starvation if territories were still occupied by their incarcerated owners, can now occupy those feeding territories, survive and breed. So unless every single female in a municipality and all areas within 7 km. of that municipality is caught, which is highly unlikely, the stray dog problem will continue and the municipality will end up with thousands of dogs incarcerated at huge expense in its shelter plus the original number of dogs on the streets !

6. SHKD’s work so far.

SHKD has built a shelter and neutering clinic in Gokturk outside Istanbul. SHKD has neutered and vaccinated over 7000 stray, semi-stray and owned dogs during the last two years. We make no charge for this service (although donations are very welcome).

Although some of our neutered dogs in Kemerburgaz and Bahcekoy have been poisoned, and there are some dogs not yet caught in the above areas, there will no longer be a stray dog problem in these peripheral areas of Istanbul when the current generation of dogs dies natural deaths.

SHKD has neutered and enclosed over 1500 dogs previously dumped by misguided and irresponsible residents and municipalities on the rehabilitated Kemerburgaz rubbish dump. However feeding and caring for these dogs does nothing to reduce the dog population in Istanbul. These 1500 dogs have already been replaced by 1500 new dogs in the city.

SHKD implements ‘Neuter and Release’ in Besiktas and Sisli in cooperation with these municipalities. However Besiktas and Sisli are only ‘lighthouse projects’ to show the way; for as long as surrounding municipalities fail to follow suit the problem in Besiktas and Sisli will not be solved because when the dogs we have neutered and vaccinated there die, they will be replaced by fertile dogs infiltrating from surrounding areas to fill the void.

All released dogs are fitted with a non-removable collar or earclip and an unique number is tattooed into one ear under anaesthetic, normally with neutering. A record is kept of every dog, including the place and date of release.

7. Projections for ‘Neuter and Release’.



1 That the average life of a street dog which survives to breeding age is between 3.5 and 4 years.
2 That the male:female population at birth and the death rate are 50:50.
3 That a well trained vet team can neuter 9 females and 1 or 2 males per day.
4 That recuperation facilities are available for 50 dogs per clinic.
5 That all females have two litters per annum with 8 live births per litter.
6 That 50% of live puppies dies before they can breed
7 That only the same number of surviving puppies will live until breeding age as older dogs which die during the same period for as long as the carrying capacity of the area is full; and that the others die of hunger, weakness etc.
8 That clinics practise early age neutering from age 3 months upwards if necessary on litters of surviving puppies, rather than releasing puppies un-neutered.
9 That the female dogs which die naturally (250 per half year for the first 5 years of the project) do not breed in the half year of their deaths, or if they do, that none of their puppies survives.
10 That each clinic employs two dog catching/release teams at night and one team during the day 6 days per week.SHKD caught and neutered 289 dogs in the first 3 months of 2000 in Besiktas with one dog catching team. A target of 90 dogs per team per month is therefore feasible
11 That dog owners who allow their dogs to stray, or who abandon them, will bring them to the clinic for free neutering and vaccination and will therefore not distort the diminishing reproduction rate, or alternatively, that all of such abandoned dogs can be picked up
12 That priority is given to neutering females before males.The neutering of males has limited short term impact on the population.
13 That all surrounding municipalities follow the same policy to the edge of the conurbation.
14 That 60% of females are caught and neutered in the first 6 months.That 80% of the remaining fertile females are caught and neutered in the next 6 months.And that 90% of remaining fertile females are done in the third and subsequent 6 months.


– Within 4 years the stray dog population is less than half the present level.
– Within 5 years the stray dog population is reduced to 26% of present levels.
– Within 6 years the stray dog population is virtually eliminated (as in W. Europe).

if more females than 645 can be caught in the second 6 month period – for example 725 females (90% of the remaining fertile females incl. new puppies) – the process will be speeded up.
If the average life span of the female street dogs is 2.5 to 3 years rather than the 3.5 to 4 years projected the stray dog population will almost die out within 4 years.

Life-span of street dogs:

This is in practice probably varies, for dogs which survive to breeding age, between 1 year and 8 years. Except for animals fed regularly nutritious food by humans, i.e. semi-stray dogs, it is very unlikely that a street dog will survive beyond 8 years, and relatively few will survive beyond 5 years.

Abandoned dogs:

Abandoned pets will continue to be a problem long after Neuter and Release has finished, as indeed they are in Western European problems. However former pets will be easy to catch as they are used to and even seek human contact. People must be educated to collect them or report them to the Police or their local clinic and municipal dog wardens should bring them to the clinic. One hopes they can then be rehomed in Turkey or Europe. Even bitches on heat when abandoned are likely to be caught by dog wardens or brought to clinics before giving birth.

Dog owners who can or no longer wish to keep their dog should be educated by publicity to bring their dog to their local clinic rather than to throw it out onto the streets.

8. The only practical answer.

The only solution is a private enterprise – public sector project financed and empowered by Government but implemented by a committed non-profit private organisation or organisations (perhaps one for the European and one for the Asian side of Istanbul).

Public bodies are often too cumbersome, bureaucratic and conservative to succeed in implementing ‘Neuter and Release’. Officials lack the motivation radically to change the status quo.

On the other hand private organisations like S.H.K.D., however efficiently run, lack the finance and the authority to implement a solution in a city as large as Istanbul.

Such a project must be centrally financed either by the Government in Ankara or by the Greater Istanbul Municipality. It cannot be left to individual municipalities because one or two incompetent or uncooperative municipalities will sabotage the project for all the others. Local municipalities must be obliged to provide land or a suitable building for at least one neutering clinic with adequate recuperation and quarantine facilities. If they fail to do so the Greater Istanbul Municipality must make a Compulsory Takeover Order. Local officials and municipal vets must have no power or ability to obstruct the project.
Centrally financed clinics would neuter and release dogs from neighbouring municipalities if they have spare capacity. Municipal borders would not be a barrier to co-operation any more than they are a barrier to the dogs themselves.

9. Dog Population Management Board.

An organisation must be established to run Istanbul’s Dog Population Management Project effectively and dynamically as private businesses are run. An expatriate Chief Executive, experienced in managing public service companies or projects, should be appointed so that there is no question of corruption or political nepotism. He should be answerable directly to a Board consisting of a representative of the relevant Ministry in Ankara, a representative of a respected world body such as WSPA, an appointee of the Greater Istanbul Municipality and a representative of an Animal Protection Organisation such as S.H.K.D. A commercial sponsor for the overall project could also appoint a member of the board.

The Chief Executive should be assisted by high calibre Turkish graduates, one of whom could take over as Chief Executive in due course. The financial records should be audited by a firm of internationally respected accountants who appoint a full time Chief Accountant to eliminate any danger of corruption or financial waste.

10. Executive Board.

The Executive Board should consist of the Chief Executive, a Logistics Director, a Purchasing Director, a Chief Accountant, a Personnel Director and a Chief Vet (all recruited from the private sector). The Board should employ a veterinary surgeon and 2 assistant vets/veterinary nurses in each clinic in addition to student vets/volunteers. SHKD can provide training in neutering techniques, shelter management and dog catching methods as could foreign animal welfare organisations.

Each municipality would have one or two neutering clinics supplying free of charge neutering and vaccination to all residents and stray dogs collected by residents. Each clinic must have recuperation facilities for 7 times the daily neutering capacity and quarantine facilities for 10 dogs. Preferably also a garden area and car park. Uncurable dogs should be euthanased humanely after certification by at least 2 vets. Dangerous dogs should only be put to sleep after observation for at least 10 days and if rehabilitation attempts fail.

The Board’s HQ should be situated next to a Neutering Clinic so that Management can keep in day to day touch with problems arising. A public liaison team should field calls and complaints from the public.

11. Alternative structure.

To grant the contract to a private sector non-profit organisation such as SHKD at a fixed fee plus $ 20.00 per dog neutered and vaccinated. But this is only workable if initial bank facilities of min. $ 1 million are made available to the contractor to bridge the gap before funds are received from the Greater Istanbul Municipality. Financial supervision would be necessary to prevent profit making at the expense of the animals or of the efficacy of the project and to remove any suspicion of corruption.

12. Local Neutering Clinics.

Every municipality, which does not already have a clinic, must be forced to make suitable land and/or a building available for a neutering clinic such as illustrated. The local municipality should provide water, electricity and if possible gas free of charge.

Each clinic would have a manager responsible for supervising personnel, record keeping and organising his dog catching/release teams. Each clinic would need 2 vans (sponsored by advertisers) with 3 dog catching teams. At night 2 dog catching teams would operate. During the day one dog catching team would operate. The other van would be used for supplies. Dog catching teams would work outwards from their clinic until their whole catchment area has been covered.

Municipalities with existing clinics, such as Besiktas, should be incorporated into the Project with the Greater Istanbul Municipality providing a subsidy.

13. Publicising the Project and networks of local volunteers.

A budget of perhaps $ 200,000 should be allocated for advertising for local volunteers and to publicise the location of clinics. Neuter and Release should be advertised and explained to the public. A Public Relations Bureau could be engaged.

A network of volunteer dog wardens should be established in each clinic area. Their job would be to locate, feed, befriend and catch street dogs, then to care for them after release, notifying their local clinic of illnesses, injuries or complaints. They would help to recatch dogs for booster vaccinations. They could also guard catching cages to prevent theft.
Weak, small or handicapped dogs would be held in clinics or passed on to derneks pending adoption/rehoming.
All personnel and dog wardens would be inoculated against rabies.

14. Peripheral Municipalities.

Municipalities outside the Greater Istanbul Municipal area but adjoining it (within 5 kms of the conurbation) must be included in the scheme and must provide land for clinics and cooperate with the Dog Population Management Board.

15. How long will it take and how much will the project cost ?

Assuming 50 dogs on average can be neutered each week in each clinic and we set up 2 clinics in Gaziosmanpasa and one elsewhere the worst case will be Bagcilar where it would take us 20 months to neuter all 4205 dogs. However whereas we can easily catch 50 dogs per week to start with it will become more difficult to fill the ‘conveyor belt’ later on, so we should assume a period of 3 years for completion of the project.

We suggest starting off with one clinic only in Gazisomanpasa until we gauge the effect of recent poisoning on the current dog population there.

Based on SHKD’s performance in Besiktas (289 dogs caught in 3 months with only one catching team) and elsewhere it should be possible to catch 70-80% of females in the first 6 months. There will be cross-border co-operation and spare capacity in one clinic, for example in Besiktas’ Mediko clinic which is already under-utilised, should be used for neutering dogs from neighbouring municipalities. For example K. Cekmece dogs could be neutered in Bakirkoy’s clinic which is likely to be underused because SHKD has already neutered most dogs in Bakirkoy.

Personnel required in each clinic (Year 1).
Wage costs incl. tax and SSK.

1 Manager $ 850
1 Vet $ 1000
4 drivers $ 680 each
3 dog catchers $ 680 each
2 vet assistants $ 638 each
1 cleaner $ 560
1 night guard $560
Lunch and bus passes $ 744
Total $ 9750 per month


One-off expenditure
2 vans $32000
50 cages $6000
6 catching cages $1200
Furniture $1000
6 catch poles $700
Vet equipment $4300
2 tranq. guns $2000
Gloves, clothing $800
Rabies inoculations $1000
Other $1000
Total: $50.000
Clinic Building: $40.000
Other monthly costs:
Fuel for vans $300
Cleaning materials $100
Medicine/vaccines $3400
Dogfood $400
Phone incl mobiles $200
Other incl repairs $100
Total $4500
Monthly costs (year 1) $14250,-
Year 2: 2 drivers and 2 dog catchers are sufficient, less fuel, dogfood, medicine, vaccines
Monthly costs (year 2) $10000,-
Year 3: 1 driver, 1 dog catcher, 1 asst vet are sufficient, less fuel, dogfood, medicine etc.
Monthly costs (year 3) $7000,-
ANNUAL COSTS per clinic:
Year 1:
Building + eqpmt $90.000,-
Personnel incl lunch/tr. $117.000,-
Other costs $54000,-
TOTAL Year 1: $261.000,-
Year 2:
Personnel incl lunch/tr. $90.192,-
Other $29808,-
TOTAL Year 2: $120.000,-
Year 3:
Personnel incl lunch/tr. $64.236,-
Other $19764,-
TOTAL Year 3: $84.000,-
All European Istanbul (note: Besiktas and Bakirkoy already have clinics and Sisli and Sariyer are building clinics).
The project in 14 municipalities as above will cost over 3 years: $6.510.000,-
Sariyer with existing building: $425.000,-
Sisli with clinic being built: $425.000,-
Bakirkoy with existing clinic and shelter: $375.000,-
Besiktas with existing clinic : $200.000,-
TOTAL $7.935.000,-
Central Organisation:
Year One only:
Expatriate Chief Executive incl. accomm. $150.000,-
2 graduate assistants à $ 30000 p.a. $60.000,-
5 board members $204.000,-
10 secretaries, book-keepers etc. à $ 10200 p.a. $102.000,-
Total Year 1 $516.000,-
Years 2 and 3: .
New chief exectuive à $ 61200 p.a $122.400,-
1 graduate assistant à $ 35000 p.a. $70.000,-
5 board members + secr.etc as above + 10% $673.200,-
Total Years 2 and 3: $865.600,-
Advertising budget (year one only) $200.000,-
Office equipment & furniture $100.000,-
Telephones à $ 12000 p.a. $36.000,-
assuming office accommodation available in existing municipal building.
So the total cost of the Dog Population Management Project over 3 years will be:
approx. US Dollars 9.653.600,- (average $ 3.217.867,- per year).
excluding income from sponsorship and from sale of assets ********************************************************The Board must be financially independent of Government and the Greater Istanbul Municipality. A Government bank should provide funds to the Board so that its purchasing, operations and payment of salaries cannot be obstructed.


16. Commercial Sponsorship.


A main sponsor should be sought to sponsor the whole project. This could be a bank, a pharmaceutical or consumer products company or one of the large holding companies with diverse interests. Their name would appear on all publicity, on the vehicles and on the clinics. Secondary sponsors such as dogfood manufacturers should also be sought.

If the clinic buildings and equipment, the vehicles and the advertising were all sponsored this would save $ 1.660.000,-.

Many companies would be interested in sponsoring a socially beneficial project with short term beneficial results for the human (and canine) population of Istanbul which is supported and supervised by the Greater Istanbul Municipality.

17. Future use of clinics/ dog control.


Once the number of stray dogs to be neutered diminishes (within 3 years) to about one per day, the local clinics should be converted into commercial veterinary clinics owned by the local or Greater Istanbul municipality. The clinics could be franchised to private vets on condition that all stray and owned dogs continue to be neutered and vaccinated free of charge or at cost price and that free quarantine facilities are available to the municipality.

A licensing system should be introduced whereby all un-neutered dogs be registered (possibly with microchips or discs) at their local clinic and the owner charged a licence fee starting at $ 10 in the first year, gradually increasing to $ 50 per dog in subsequent years. Neutered dogs would also be registered but free of charge. Unregistered and un-neutered dogs picked up or brought in would automatically be neutered before being returned to claimants.

Local clinics could also be used as bases for the enforcement of animal protections laws – bases for local ‘R.S.P.C.A’s’.


18. Licensing Dog Breeders.


These should be licensed (free of charge) by the Chief Vet of their local clinic who would ensure that no bitch has more than two litters and who would remove the licence of any breeder mistreating or in-breeding animals.


19. Pitfalls.


Failure to provide finance when scheduled.
Corruption by employees/supervisors (especially in purchasing).
Misuse of vehicles. Diversion or theft of medicines/dogfood.
Obstruction by local officials/municipal vets.
Failure by municipalities to provide land/buildings for clinic